Smart materials are functional materials that have one or more properties that can be significantly changed in a controlled fashion by external stimuli, such as stress, temperature, moisture, electric or magnetic fields. They can be used in a variety of mechatronics systems.
– Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs),
Open access book on ` Shape Memory Alloys `
Microstructure of Martensite: Why it Forms and how it Gives Rise to the Shape-memory Effect
– Shape Memory Polymers (SMPs),
Shape-memory polymers (SMPs) are polymeric smart materials that have the ability to return from a deformed state (temporary shape) to their original (permanent) shape induced by an external stimulus (trigger), such as temperature change. www.youtube.com/watch?v=E_VrPyDJqx4
– Piezoelectric materials,
The piezoelectric effect describes the relation between a mechanical stress and an electrical voltage in solids. It is reversible: an applied mechanical stress will generate a voltage and an applied voltage will change the shape of the solid by a small amount (up to a 4% change in volume).
– Magnegostrictive materials,
Magnetostriction (cf. electrostriction) is a property of ferromagnetic materials that causes them to change their shape or dimensions during the process of magnetization. The variation of materials’ magnetization due to the applied magnetic field changes the magnetostrictive strain until reaching its saturation value, λ.
– Thermoelectrics or Peltier devices are an electronic form of heat pump.
A typical Peltier device uses a voltage input to create hot and cold junctions, hence they can be used for heating or cooling. www.youtube.com/watch?v=BHFI9nGY8Qs
Aerogel is a synthetic porous ultralight material derived from a gel, in which the liquid component of the gel has been replaced with a gas. The result is a solid with extremely low density and low thermal conductivity. Despite their name, aerogels are solid, rigid, and dry materials that do not resemble a gel in their physical properties: The name comes from the fact that they are made from gels. Further info can be received from www.aerogel.org