Mar 22

Some History Papers: Essays on Modern History in England and

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A background of thought is needed for fixing the mind. Art and literature, law, education, and politics were preserved in the teachings of the Church, in an environment that, otherwise, would have probably seen their loss. The writing on the seals and tablets might have changed as well through the years. The global civilization created by Islam also succeeded in activating the mind and thought of the people who entered its fold. These seals were inscribed with elegant portrayals of real and imagined animals and were marked with the Indus script writing.

Pages: 353


Such specialization made people dependent on others for their various needs. In cities, social organization became more complex. People were ranked according to their jobs. Such ranking led to the growth of social classes , e.g. http://nickel-titanium.com/lib/on-the-possibility-and-desirability-of-scientific-progress. It allowed for coining new words while retaining the grammatical rules of Classical Latin. It became the common language of scholars. This solved the problem of caused by Late Latin beginning to diverge into the regional dialects which were becoming mutually unintelligible (the precursors of Romance languages), preventing scholars around Europe from communicating with each other , e.g. http://nickel-titanium.com/lib/medievalia-et-humanistica-no-22. But since all mass movements carry the risk of excess, extremism by some is likely to occur at times. However, one should not judge the higher values shared by the many on the basis of the extreme deeds committed by the few. All civilizations arose from settled agricultural communities. These communities produced food surpluses to sustain growing populations. As clusters of small agricultural settlements expanded within the limits of a given ecological niche, urban centers typically emerged http://nickel-titanium.com/lib/bronze-age-bureaucracy-writing-and-the-practice-of-government-in-assyria. Ancient Greek civilizations originated in 2000 B. Also Greeks spread their ideas all over the world. They contributed significantly with the ideas of geometry, philosophy, government, sporting events, architecture, sculpture, drama, and more. All of this came about and reached new heights during Greece’s “Golden Age” ref.: http://nickel-titanium.com/lib/the-solar-warrior-the-eclipse-the-solar-warrior-trilogy-volume-3. The history and stories of the longbow are rich and wonderful. So draw back your desk chair and loose yourself into the realm of the longbow." "The Beguines of northern Europe have been called the first women's movement in Christian history , e.g. http://nickel-titanium.com/lib/the-history-of-civilization. Throughout the Mayan period, these city-states warred with one another, making allies with other city-states in opposition to one another. Normally, one city-state in a region was more powerful than the others, and the rest would be forced to pay tribute to the first city-state's king in order to ensure peace between the two states ref.: http://agiosioanniskalyvitis.gr/books/dumbarton-oaks-papers-number-47-1993.

In Latin America, there are many more countries and cultures than in Spain, as they are largely a very diverse mixture of the multitudes of indigenous peoples’ cultures and that of the Europeans who conquered their civilizations hundreds of years ago. Racial affinities are also referenced, and are also mistaken. The race of people in Latin American countries, as I already mentioned, might be a mixture including American (North, South, or Central) Indigenous blood, which would not likely be in the racial profile of people on a western European peninsula http://www.juicyfarm.com/?books/the-pattern-of-imperialism-the-united-states-great-britian-and-the-late-industrializing-world. From the initial appe arance of Homo erectus about 2.0-1.8 mya, Europe was periodically buried under the ice sheets that began growing and receding when the first stone tools were made, so Homo erectus tended to appear and disappear in Europe.� The fact that humans evolved and spread during an ice age has led to competing hypotheses about many aspects of humanity�s rise.� Although the ice age began about 2.6-2.5 mya, and there have been 17 identified episodes of advancing and retreating ice sheets, particularly in North America and northern Eurasia, the early ones were not as severe, and they did not achieve clockwork-like regularity until the past million years, as the diagram below shows.� (Source: Wikimedia Commons) But even though they were �regular� on the geologic time scale, driven by Milankovitch cycles, there would have been nothing �regular� about them to evolving humans.� When ice sheets advanced, global climate became cooler and dryer; rainforests shrank and deserts expanded. �Human adaptations to those changes, which could even be discerned in one human lifetime, must have had profound impacts on the human journey.� In short, humans had to readily adapt to rapidly changing conditions, and rapid adaptation would have had selective effects on burgeoning human intelligence and problem-solving ability; those that adapted, survived.� Also, scientists think that the rapidly oscillating climate resulted in migrations and pockets of isolated members of species that then underwent rapid evolutionary adaptation, the kind that leads to speciation.� This may have been partly responsible for the relatively rapid evolution of the human line, particularly in the past million years. [516] � Although our s pecies, Homo sapiens (named Homo sapiens sapiens if we consider that Neanderthals and an early human are subspecies of Homo sapiens, but I will use Homo sapiens in this essay to denote today�s humans), is the only survivor of the past several million years of human-line evolution, many of our cousins and ancestors were recognizably human.� When did language begin, especially spoken language?� Language certainly predated the appearance of Homo sapiens. �All great apes readily learn sign language, and even when monkeys chatter, the same parts of their brains that control human language are used, and there is plenty of evidence that great ape vocalizations can denote objects and other ideas .� The communicative abilities of crows and their corvid cousins can be hard to believe; they can solve some problems better than great apes can, and birds do not have a neocortex, but another part of their brain seems to function like the neocortex does.� Becoming bipedal created those neck/skull changes that began to form the structures needed for human speech .� If fossils are sufficiently preserved, important anatomical features can provide key evidence for human abilities and behaviors.� Turkana Boy, for instance, had his inner ear, which is responsible for balance, preserved well enough so that it provided more evidence that he did not spend time in trees (it is larger in primates that regularly climb). [517] � Si milarly, the outer and middle ear of Homo heidelbergensis, which succeeded Homo erectus, apparently enabled keener hearing than its predecessors were capable of, and may have reflected the beginnings of spoken language.� There is st rong evidence that Neanderthals were capable of using spoken language .� As with many other human traits, the potential for language seems to have existed with monkeys ( even in dinosaurs ), and it kept developing more sophistication over vast stretches of time, and structural and cognitive changes interacted as human language developed into today�s version , e.g. http://stevenw.net/ebooks/atlantis-rising.
Brooks Adam thinks his concept limp lies order maintained over an area by government power , e.g. http://narrowarroe.com/freebooks/the-atlas-of-atlantis-and-other-lost-civilizations-discover-the-history-and-wisdom-of-atlantis. If you’ve played a lot of Civ 5 already, here’s the highlights of how cultural victory has changed http://lernbild.de/lib/germany-from-the-earliest-period-v-02. Spanish history of this era reveals rich contributions of Jewish religious thought, philosophy, poetry and science. The Jews were prosperous, honored and happy, and the fame of their achievements spread through all the capitals of Europe. It was nothing palpable, no serious friction among the various peoples of this Christian-Jewish-Muslim Spain that put an end to this happy epoch , cited: http://nickel-titanium.com/lib/pirate-gold. The Jurassic (c. 201 to 145 mya) and Cretaceous (c. 145 to 66 mya) periods spanned the Golden Age of Dinosaurs.� The human fascination with dinosaurs is primarily due to their great size.� They were Earth�s largest land animals ever, by far.� Huge predators hunted even larger herbivores.� Prosauropods, or plateosaurs, were largely bipedal and were the early Jurassic�s dominant herbivorous dinosaurs, but their four-legged descendants, sauropods, supplanted them by the mid-Jurassic and sauropods became Earth�s largest land animals ever.� Some species may have weighed more than 100 metric tons, which would have rivaled the blue whale, which is generally considered to be the largest animal that ever lived.� The blue whale achieved weight primacy, but the sauropods� vast dimensions are still awe-inspiring.� Some were up to 60 meters in length and could reach 17 meters tall .� Some of the largest sauropods ever lived in the late Jurassic, when they were most numerous, but huge sauropods were plentiful until the Cretaceous extinction. [344] � A prominent hypothesis is that their tremendous size was a strategy for digesting lower-quality food sources; they could digest food for a longer period as it wound its way through their digestive systems.� Their size also discouraged predation and conserved heat. �But their highly efficient air sac breathing system may have been the main reason why they could get so large, particularly in the record-low oxygen Jurassic Period, at least according to GEOCARBSULF .� Jurassic saur opods probably subsisted on ferns and the foliage of cycads and conifers, which almost no vertebrates do today, and few animals.� Sauropods had huge guts to ferment those plants. [345] � It would not have been an energy-rich diet.� There has been controversy whether sauropods could rear up on their hind legs, and how they held their heads on their long necks, but the idea that they were primarily swamp-dwellers underwent significant revision.� Today, scientists think that they seem to have sought moist environments, but probably did not spend their lives immersed in water.� They were walking grazers and browsers, and their long necks were probably used for browsing trees. [346] Sauropods seem to have lived in herds and tended their young .� Until re latively recently, animals as agents of ecosystem change and maintenance was a marginal idea.� But today, sediment burrowing is thought to be a seminal geophysical event in the Cambrian, and those huge sauropods probably had an ecosystem impact like what elephants have today in Africa. [347] � Elephants today break up woods as they feed, as they knock over trees and uproot them.� That damage transforms the biome and provides opportunities for other kinds of herbivores and their predators.� Elephants also create and enlarge water holes and are considered keystone species, which have an outsized impact on their environment.� Today, there is a � loyal opposition � to the overkill hypothesis regarding megafauna extinctions soon after humans appeared; such people minimize the impact of humans (their position has an inherent conflict of interest, as those scholars and scientists are all humans ) and attribute the extinction of all elephants of the Western Hemisphere ( north, south ) to climate change and resulting changes in vegetation.� If the current situation with African elephants is relevant, it is likelier that those vegetation changes were a result of elephant extinction, not a cause. [348] � Elephant extinctions would have affected many other kinds of plants and animals, and could have precipitated cascade effects .� Similarly, those huge sauropods would not just have nibbled at vegetation and been relatively harmless browsers, but their vast bulk would have been ideal for pushing over trees to get at their foliage and other devastations of trees in particular, which would have dramatically impacted biomes.� Giant dinosaurs probably had keystone species impacts on their environments, particularly the vegetation.� Dinosaurs were not the only huge organisms in those days.� The first sequoias appeared in the Jurassic, and would have been immune to dinosaur browsing when they grew large enough.� Below is an artist's conception of a typical Jurassic landscape (just as an allosaur and stegosaur are about to cordially interact).� (Source: Wikimedia Commons) Ornithis chians started slowly and began to become common in the late Jurassic, just when the greatest biological innovation in the past 300 million years began: the appearance of flowering plants, which first bloomed about 160 mya.� Until that time, plant survival strategies included how to avoid being eaten by animals, whether it was bark, height, poisonous foliage, etc.� Flowering plants adopted a different strategy by laying out a banquet for animals.� The primary benefit for plants was spending less energy to reproduce, as well as attracting animals that did not seek to eat the plants and even ended up protecting them. �The advantage for animals was an easily acquired and tasty meal.� It was the greatest direct symbiosis between plants and animals ever, other than plants providing the oxygen that animals breathe, which is inadvertent.� The two primary aspirations that seed plants achieve for successful reproduction are becoming fertilized via pollination and placing seeds where they can become viable offspring (and feces fertilizer could only help).� Flowering plants, also called angiosperms, did not invent animal assistance from whole cloth.� Some Jurassic insects have been found in association with gymnosperm (conifer) cones, and were probably doing the work that the wind previously performed. [349] � Like the enzyme example of a key rattling around in a room, attracting animals to plants, to eat the pollen and nectar, was like a reproductive enzyme: animals carried the key to the lock to initiate reproduction.� Other animals ate the fruit and thereby spread the seeds.� That relationship did not become significant until the mid-Cretaceous. [350] � Angiosperms mature faster and produce more seeds than gymnosperms do.� By the Cretaceous�s end, angiosperms dominated tropical biomes where ferns and cycads used to thrive, and they pushed conifers to the high latitudes, just as they have today.� That tropical dominance is probably related to the insect population, which prefers warm climates.� Angiosperms became Earth�s dominant plants after the end-Cretaceous extinction and comprise more than 90% of plant species today http://nickel-titanium.com/lib/greek-and-roman-networks-in-the-mediterranean.
The thoughts will leave your brain and enter the brain of your friend. There may be some mistakes in the beginning here and there. When you advance in practice and know the technique well, you will always be correct in sending and receiving messages epub. As a member of the Benedictine monastery of Monte Carlo he translated a number of Arabic works, chiefly in the field of medicine, into Latin. The greatest translator of this period was Gerard of Cremona, who worked in Toledo between 1175 and 1187. He was the most important single agent in the rendering of Arabic texts into Latin, and was responsible for bringing Greek and Arab science to the attention of scholars all over Europe , source: http://nickel-titanium.com/lib/general-history-of-civilization-in-europe. Residents of the later period (5500 BC to 2600 BC) put much effort into crafts, including flint knapping, tanning, bead production, and metal working. The site was occupied continuously until about 2600 BC.[2] In April 2006, it was announced in the scientific journal Nature that the oldest evidence in human history for the drilling of teeth in vivo (i.e. in a living person) was found in Mehrgarh ref.: http://go-science.ru/?lib/the-gifts-of-the-jewes-how-a-tribe-of-desert-nomads-changed-the-way-everyone-thinks-and-feels. Some of the patterns that appear from an examination of the first four civilizations include the following: (1) When a new technology with radically different and improved capabilities of communication is first introduced into society, it will profoundly change the culture and, indeed, mark the beginning of a new civilization http://agiosioanniskalyvitis.gr/books/dsst-history-of-western-civilization-to-1500-passbooks-dantes-subject-standardized-tests. They provide guidance, they have influence over others, others respect them, they respond to the needs of others, and they put the welfare of others above their own , source: http://vprsanonymous.com/?freebooks/the-scandal-of-empire. And as Will said, these developments are really all that separate us from being Neolithic, so does that mean we aren't near as civilized as we think we are http://nickel-titanium.com/lib/the-history-of-georgia-from-its-earliest-settlement-to-the-present-time-by-t-s-arthur-and-w-h? Populations expanded and became increasingly sedentary. Louis, Ill.) the largest earthwork in North America was built, a temple mound measuring nearly 100 ft high (30 m) and 975 ft long (300 m) ref.: http://www.manonthemoon.es/?freebooks/legacy-the-search-for-ancient-cultures. Thoughts of passion and lust, should be conquered by an earnest practice of Brahmacharya, by intense aspiration to realize the Truth, to know God, by meditating on the great advantages of purity. Thoughts of hatred and anger should be controlled by generating thoughts of love, forgiveness, mercy, friendliness, peace, patience and non-violence. Pride and thoughts connected with pride must be controlled by a systematic mental examination of the value of cultivating humility http://fgnuernberg.de/freebooks/federico-da-montefeltro-and-sigismondo-malatesta-studies-in-italian-culture-literature-in-history. Once, which means "eleven," is evidently named after the British tea time—11:00 most families serve dinner, which is usually a single but substantial dish, most often accompanied with wine grown in the many Central Valley vineyards. Chilean cuisine has both Indian and European influences. The national dish, porotos granados, for instance, has ingredients characteristic of Indian cooking (corn, squash, and beans), with distinctly Spanish contributions (onion and garlic) , e.g. http://nickel-titanium.com/lib/the-industrial-turn-in-world-history-themes-in-world-history. White culture creates and recreates carefully manipulated racialized emotions in peoples of color and in white people. For people of color, internalized racism may produce feelings of low self-esteem and a distrust of other peoples of color. The effects of pervasive, systemic racism produce emotions of suppressed and explosive rage http://nickel-titanium.com/lib/the-truth-about-woman-1913.

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