Mar 30

Sasanian Era, The (Idea of Iran)

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As I was preparing to take my leave after a longish pause into which we had fallen as into a vague dream, she came out of it with a start and a quiet sigh. Another Greek mechanical genius, Hero, developed the gear and the crank and -- more important -- summed up all the mechanical knowledge of his day in a three volume treatise, 'Mechanics'. The Tethys Ocean grew during the Triassic, and in the Jurassic there were no more island barriers on the Tethys�s east end.� The Paleo-Tethys was finally squeezed out of existence by islands that became part of Eurasia.� The shallow margins of the Tethys became the greatest oil source in Earth�s history.� The Proto-Tethys and Paleo-Tethys oceans also formed oil deposits, but about 70% of the world�s oil deposits initially formed during the Mesozoic�s anoxic events, primarily along the Tethys�s margins.� In the Middle East, Caspian Sea, Western Russia, North Africa, Gulf of Mexico, and Venezuela virtually all of the oil deposits were laid down by dying and preserved organisms along Tethyan shores.� In the early Triassic, along the west end of what became North America, oceanic plate subduction under continental plates initiated a series of volcanic and mountain-building events that continue to this day. �The foundations of the Sierra Nevada mountain range were formed then.� I have spent my fair share of time hiking through them .� Low-oxygen Meso zoic oceans saw the rise of unusual biomes.� In methane seeps in the Mesozoic�s global ocean floor, bivalves and brachiopods formed symbiotic relationships with chemosynthetic organisms that digested methane. [312] � All over the world, scientists have been amazed to find rock layers almost entirely comprised of shells of those innovative, low-oxygen surviving shelled animals. [313] As with cli ch� images of Carboniferous rainforests that depict giant dragonflies, the clich� dinosaur image has volcanoes in the background ( 1, 2 ).� The Mesozoic began and ended with tremendous volcanic eruptions, and major eruptions dotted the Mesozoic.� Those eruptions vented vast amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and were responsible for the high carbon dioxide levels that dominated the Mesozoic, according to GEOCARBSULF and its subsequent corrections, which made it such a hot era.� Hot seas also do not hold as much oxygen as cold seas, which contributed to the anoxic events that continually visited Mesozoic oceans, particularly the Tethys.� Ho t, low-oxygen air is hostile to animal life, and during the Triassic, many reptiles beat the heat by migrating back to the oceans where their ancestors hailed from. [314] � Those seagoing reptiles soon dominated Earth�s oceans in complex life's greatest migration from land to sea.� Ichthyosaurs, which looked like reptilian dolphins, first appeared about 245 mya and survived for about 150 million years.� The ancestors of plesiosaurs also appeared when ichthyosaurs did.� By 215 mya, some ichthyosaurs became gigantic; one species reached more than 20 meters in length and had Earth�s largest eyes ever, at about the size of dinner plates. [315] � Ichthyo saurs hunted the squid�s ancestors (which could become fairly large ), Earth�s other big-eyed animals, but feasted on a wide variety of prey as the late Triassic oceans� apex predators.� Also, a shellfish-eating cousin of plesiosaurs lived in the Triassic.� Aquatic reptiles overcame Carrier�s Constraint, and many aquatic reptiles of the Mesozoic seem to have become warm-blooded and also gave live birth.

Pages: 200

Publisher: I.B.Tauris; 1 edition (July 20, 2010)


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